Locomotion in other B., C. L. Day, P. G. Lee, R. K. O'Dor, and M. Vecchione. The cuttlefish, however, which swims or hovers above the bottom or rests on the bottom, adjusts its buoyancy through the amount of gases contained in the porous cuttlebone. The ADW Team gratefully acknowledges their support. NCERT P Bahadur IIT-JEE Previous Year Narendra Awasthi MS Chauhan. They are believed to be the precursors of modern-day squid and cuttlefish. But arm spans of up to nine metres (30 feet) have been reported in Octopus dofleini. The embryo of a cuttlefish (Sepia), squid (Loligo), or octopus (Octopus) has a yolk sac. The extinct forms outnumber the living, the class having attained great diversity in late Paleozoic and Mesozoic times. Many living cephalopods (but not Nautilus) possess an ink sac capable of ejecting a dark fluid to confound predators. Cephalopoda means "head foot" and this group has the most complex brain of any invertebrate. The octopus, squid, cuttlefish, and chambered nautilus are familiar representatives. chromatophores, are responsible for the ability of the cephalopods to change Cephalopods are excluded from the Baltic Sea by lower salinities but have been found in areas of the Suez Canal where salinities are higher than in the oceans. Schneider, 1784 Highly specialized marine molluscs divided into two distinctive subclasses, the shelled subclass Nautiloidea and the subclass Coleoidea, in which the shell is reduced and internal or lacking entirely.About 600 species worldwide, typically nektonic or bentho-pelagic, fastmoving, predatory. belemnoids. ocotopoids and vampyromorphans lack shells altogether. A female typically possesses a single oviduct. They are hermaphrodite and detorted animals that may be free swimming or bottom dwellers. Cephalopods (Octopi and Squids) Cephalopods are molluscan animals that live in the sea. Belemnoids, which also appeared in the Mesozoic, had internal At hatching, the young may closely resemble the adult and assume the adult habitat or they may differ from the adult and spend a considerable time in the plankton as part of the drifting life. The benthic octopods are bottom crawlers, gliding about the bottom and in and out of crannies with amazing agility through the use of their eight arms and hundreds of suckers. Pages 447-462 in Invertebrates. Many cephalopods (but not Nautilus and Octopus) possess special light organs (photophores), which emit chemical light or bioluminescence. The body mass is very tall. There are two groups of cephalopods: the nautiloids that have external shells and the coleoids that includes squid, octopus, and cuttlefish and do not have external shells. Nidamental glands exist in species that lay eggs encased in heavy gelatinous capsules. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. A male produces spermatophores that it transfers to the female's genital pore Most cephalopods are highly adapted for swimming. eyes with a cornea, lens, retina, and iris. In octopods with small eggs (e.g., Octopus vulgaris) the juveniles are planktonic, spending several weeks in the plankton; the “Macrotritopus” stage of Scaeurgus may greatly prolong its juvenile life until a favourable bottom substrate is found. of squid and octopus are eaten. Additional support has come from the Marisla Foundation, UM College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Museum of Zoology, and Information and Technology Services. Cephalopods range greatly in size. That's why they're called, "head-footed." The digestive tract consists This flexible tube is constructed similarly to a jet nozzle and may be turned in any direction, giving the animal great flexibility of motion for steering. Or, perhaps, you thought about dolphins, known for their animal intellect, or even perhaps something more domestic like the dog. The eggs of oceanic species may be laid in large sausagelike gelatinous masses or singly. Class Cephalopoda Cephalopods are a group of molluscs that include the pearly chambered Nautilus, squids, and the octopus. They include some of the most intelligent creatures on the planet. The Cephalopoda are fed upon by many marine mammals, large fish, and seabirds. The people who are very interested to study and learn more about cephalopods in detail … by means of a specialized arm or tentacle. Class Cephalopoda A cephalopod i s any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda. When the contractile fibers With this “dummy” left behind, the squid contracts its chromatophores, becomes nearly transparent, and jets away. cephalopods can be accomplished by other means. Class Cephalopoda The Class Cephalopoda is made up of animals such as octopus, squid, and cuttlefish. http://www.cephbase.dal.ca/. described 600 genera based on shell type - but became extinct at the end of "Cephalopoda" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. 1967. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The number of eggs laid during a spawning period varies greatly; it may range from only a few dozen in octopuses with large eggs to more than 100,000 in the common octopus, laid over a period of about two weeks. NCERT DC Pandey Sunil Batra HC Verma Pradeep Errorless. These are ancient species that are found in all of the world's oceans, and are thought to have originated about 500 million years ago. The rest of the body is in front of the head. The Cephalopoda is an ancient and very successful group of the Mollusca. Subclass Pulmonata. Spawning of oceanic squids is very poorly known. There are two groups of cephalopods: the nautiloids that have external shells and the coleoids that includes squid, octopus, and cuttlefish and do not have external shells. Class Cephalopoda (“head foot” animals) includes octopi, squids, cuttlefish, and nautilus. Cephalopoda is a class of animals in which . They can be divided into three categories: the Nautiloidea (chambered Nautilus), the Ammonoidea (the extinct ammonites), and the Dibranchiata (squids, the extinct belemnites, and octopuses). Studies undertaken at the Zoological Station in Naples by the British zoologists J.Z. The average octopus usually has arms no longer than 30 centimetres (12 inches) and rarely longer than a metre (39 inches). The smaller oceanic squids probably feed primarily upon small fish, copepods, heteropods, and caridean shrimp. They are marine animals and characterised by bilateral body symmetry, a prominent head, and a set of arms or tentacles modified from the primitive molluscan foot. In living forms, except for the Sepioidea, the shell is strongly degenerate or missing and the characters used consist of details of the soft parts: presence or absence of an eyelid, tentacles retractile or contractile or both, shape and size of fins, number of arms, number of sucker … large numbers during the Mesozoic. 1. Octopoids can use their arms Little is known about the mating habits of most cephalopods. large brains enclosed in cartilaginous brain cases and sense organs, and most either have an internal shell, like a squid, or lack a. shell, like an octopus. The uniting of the major ganglionic centres of the central nervous system constitutes a brain of considerable complexity. However, the ancestors of these Recent animals may have been living before the There are approximately 650 to 700 extant species of cephalopods in two subclasses A cuttlefish changing colour as it swims near the Great Barrier Reef, off the northeastern coast of Australia. Press, London. A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδες, kephalópodes; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus, cuttlefish, or nautilus. Kristen Wheeler (author), Daphne G. Fautin (author). The Ammonoidea arose during the late Paleozoic and grew to Sperm whales and other toothed whales feed primarily on squids. Young, Martin J. muscles required for contraction of the cavity and respiration. ii. The foot and the small head project from the larger end. In the octopods they may be fertilized as they pass through oviductal glands near the end of the oviduct. The study of cephalopods is a bran… color and patterns accurately and rapidly in response to danger or emotion. Cephalopods are unique among the invertebrates in the degree of cephalization and cerebralization attained. A cephalopod is a member of molluscan class Cephalopoda. animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature. Studies have shown that in Octopus joubini raised from the egg in aquariums, sexual maturity and spawning were reached in five months; in a loliginid squid (Sepioteuthis sepioidea), likewise raised from the egg, sexual maturity and full growth were also attained in five months. Octopus, squid and cuttlefish - Class Cephalopoda Cephalopod literally means 'head foot' and members of this group, including octopuses, cuttlefishes, squids and nautiluses, have their foot or tentacles connected to their head, not their body. The chromatophores are expanded by nerves controlled by the brain, and the colours are exposed (brown, black, red, yellow, or orange red). Class Cephalopoda The cephalopods (the “head-foots”) are, in many respects, the most evolutionarily advanced animals to be found among the invertebrates. Research of a detailed nature has also been concerned with colour change. Class Cephalopoda includes marine animals that differ from other mollusks because they are built for speed and agility. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Many species Some open-ocean pelagic and bathypelagic forms are cosmopolitan in warm and temperate waters (Onychoteuthis banksi, Cranchia scabra). Cephalopods occur in large numbers and form one of the greatest potential food resources of the oceans. The octopus, squid, cuttlefish, and chambered nautilus are familiar representatives. Kingdom Animalia animals Animalia: information (1) Animalia: pictures (20673) Animalia: specimens (7109) Animalia: sounds (722) Animalia: maps (42) Class Cephalopoda In addition, field studies in tropical seas near Indonesia have recorded tool-using behaviour in the veined octopus (Amphioctopus marginatus). In males the reproductive system contains a series of chambers or sacs along the course of the vas deferens, which produce long tubes (spermatophores) to contain the spermatozoa. hatching. Squids that attach their eggs to the bottom engulf them in a gelatinous mass that protects them from disease and deters predators. that serves as an ink gland, producing a suspension of melanin that can be expelled Some authorities, studying the Mediterranean cephalopods, have concluded that only certain pelagic cephalopods are gregarious (Todarodes, Ocythoe). Cephalopods exhibit spiral cleavage and are protostomous, but they have no larval They also are indirectly important to humans since they furnish a large part of the diet of sperm whales and smaller whales, seals, fishes, and seabirds. Biology. Because of the extraordinary flexibility of the body, they are able to pass through openings hardly larger than the diameter of one eye. Egg laying in octopods is accomplished by the female individually fixing the eggs singly or in festoons by a short stalk or thread. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. Physical Traits: They have a series of arms or tentacles that circle the “head.” Each arm has two rows of suction sups. Movement through the water is aided by lateral expansions (swimming keels) on the outer surface of the third pair of arms. The tentacles range in number from eight in the octopus to more than ninety in Nautilus.The tentacles surround a powerful beak-like mouth. Class Cephalopoda (“head foot” animals), include octopi, squids, cuttlefish, and nautilus. Cephalopods have the most advanced nervous system of all invertebrate animals and are active hunters. Their mantle is modified into a siphon for movement via jet-propulsion, and their highly developed nervous and sensory systems include complex eyes and a centralized brain. Kozloff, E. N. 1990. Wheeler, K. and D. Fautin 2001. The ganglia are large and close to each other, forming a large brain. The name cephalopod means "head foot" and it looks as though its feet (actually tentacles) are growing out of its head. There are many kinds of mollusks but the four main classes are the class Bivalvia, the class Polyplacophora, the class Gastropoda, and the class Cephalopoda. Oxford University having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Squids also possess terminal or lateral fins used in slow movement or hovering. Eventually, mating takes place by the pair intertwining their arms and remaining together while the spermatophores are placed on the inner side of the female’s mouth membrane. To close This has not been verified by later observers, but such intelligence is not beyond belief. Cephalopods have the most advanced nervous system of all invertebrate animals and are active hunters. Cuttlefishes squirt their eggs with ink when they are laid to camouflage the otherwise white eggs. Classification, To cite this page: Images licensed under CC0. Mollusca: Class Cephalopoda. This class contains the cephalopods, animals commonly known as squid, cuttlefish, octopus, and nautilus. Cephalopoda means "head foot" and this group has the most complex brain of any invertebrate. The larval stage of an animal is best defined as a/an _____. It enters around the neck region or aperture of the mantle (through the funnel in some deep-sea octopuses). Water is drawn into the mantle cavity by the relaxation of the circular muscles and resultant expansion of the mantle. These exclusively marine animals are characterized by bilateral body symmetry, a prominent head, and a set of arms or tentacles (muscular hydrostats) modified from the primitive molluscan foot. The group includes the modern octopi and squids as well as many fossil forms. Phylum Mollusca • ‘Soft-bodied’ animals (many of which have a hard shell) • Slugs, squids and octopuses have reduced or no shell • Triploblastic, bilaterally symmetrical coelomates • Mostly marine, with some freshwater and terrestrial species • Large and diverse group, Includes 7 classes: Class Scaphopoda – the ‘tusk shells’ Class Aplacophora Class Polyplacophora – the ‘chitons’ Class Monoplacophora Class … The vertical distribution is also incompletely known. The body mass is very tall. The cephalopods are a diverse class of mollusks (a group that also includes snails and bivalves) that emerged during an explosion of animal diversity in the oceans during the Cambrian period, over 500 million years ago (mya). The eggs of most coastal species are laid inshore and are attached singly or in clusters, primarily to rocks and shells on the bottom. Grants DRL 0089283, DRL 0628151, DUE 0633095, DRL 0918590, and DUE 1122742. Class Cephalopoda The Cephalopods (Class Cephalopoda) include squid, octopuses and nautilus. NCERT NCERT Exemplar NCERT Fingertips Errorless Vol-1 Errorless Vol-2. The genus Mesonychoteuthis derives its name from a combination of three Greek words that mean “middle,” “claw” and “squid.” The species is a member of the Cranchiidae family, along with about 60 other squid species, and is in the Cephalopoda class. into two cartilaginous grooves on the opposite funnel wall; contraction of circular Description, classification, synonyms of Class Cephalopoda. buccal cavity , on the floor of which lies the radula. Habitat: They are all found in the ocean. Nautilus, which swims slowly above the bottom or in midwater, accomplishes this similarly, adjusting the gases in the chambered shell. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Habitat: They are all found in the ocean. In Octopus under attack by a moray eel, the cloud of ink seems to paralyze for some time the eel’s senses of sight and smell. Search in feature Cuttlefish. Of the cuttlefishes, the Sepiidae are littoral, whereas the Sepiolidae dwell on or near the bottom, down to considerable depths. iii. Cephalopods are the most active of the molluscs and some squids rival fishes in their swimming speed. The giant squid is the largest of all mollusks. Octopus feeds upon bivalve mollusks and on decapod crustaceans, sometimes causing severe losses to the lobster fishery by entering the traps and eating the captive lobsters. How do "colour-blind" octopuses know what colour to change to in order to hide from predators or to attract mates? When disturbed, octopods swim rapidly by jet propulsion. Schools of the large oceanic squid Thysanoteuthis rhombis have been reported at Madeira. https://www.leisurepro.com/blog/explore-the-blue/5-examples-cephalopods Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Cephalopoda is the most morphologically and behaviorally complex class in phylum Mollusca. When the mantle is contracted the aperture is closed by locking mechanisms and contraction of the anterior ring muscle, and the water is forced out through the funnel. In some species, the specialized It has a pair of large eyes. are primitive, but in other cephalopods are highly developed and resemble vertebrate Black Friday Sale! shells. Saunders College Publishing, This small class of marine mollusks includes 200 species of burrowing animals commonly known as the tusk, or tooth, shells. The geographic distribution of cephalopods is incompletely known. Little is known about the life span of cephalopods. In the order Sepioidea (cuttlefishes and bottle-tailed squids) the young closely resemble the adults and are only briefly planktonic. There is some evidence that in parts of the open sea that differ only slightly in salinity there may be a varying cephalopod fauna. In general, the pelagic and planktonic cephalopods conform in their distribution to other pelagic animals. Help us improve the site by taking our survey. Fishermen sometimes call cephalopods "inkfish," referring to their common ability to squirt ink. Grace E. Pickford, an American zoologist, has found that the vertical distribution of young in Vampyroteuthis is governed by water density, and, according to the American zoologist Clyde F.E. Cephalopods are mollusks ( Cephalopoda ), a class which includes octopuses, squid, cuttlefish, and nautilus. They display vivid coloration, typically seen in squids and octopi, which is used for camouflage. The female reproductive system is simple, consisting of the posterior ovary and paired oviducts. In the food cycle of the squid Illex, in which the adults feed upon young mackerel and the adult mackerel feed upon young squid. The mantle, which has a passive role in the majority of mollusks, has become involved in locomotion in cephalopods, having almost entirely lost its rigid shell and become highly muscular. epidermis surrounded by cells containing contractile fibers. arm tip may be pinched off and left in the female's mantle cavity: this is known phylum Mollusca. CephBase. Cephalopods are a class of shell-bearing animals as well as mollusks with a reduced shell. Their name Cephalopoda means “ head footed.” They are all fast moving ocean animals. This class contains the cephalopods, animals commonly known as squid, cuttlefish, octopus, and nautilus. Nothing is known of the life span of the large oceanic squids, but it is presumed that giants such as Architeuthis attain their bulk only after a period of perhaps four to five years. Description, classification, synonyms of Class Cephalopoda. These actions often are attempts by cephalopods to conceal or camouflage themselves through imitating bottom objects such as sand, coral, or seaweed. They display vivid coloration, typically seen in squids and octopi, which is used for camouflage. Two groups of cephalopods exist today: The Nautiloidea with a few species of the pearly nautilus, and the Coleoidea, containing the squids, cuttlefishes, octopods and vampire squids, which is represented by about 700 species. When you think about particularly intelligent animals, you likely think of our primate relatives, like monkeys and apes. And respiration of various parts for both defense and escape possess lateral that. Or in midwater, accomplishes this similarly, adjusting the gases in the octopus accomplished!, coral, or combinations of both will review what you ’ submitted... Their juvenile status was discovered amount of color changes, body movements, or even perhaps something more like. Cover all species in the egg capsule expose a larger amount of color and jet.. Animals commonly known as the first documented example of tool use by an invertebrate live in the marine,! And very successful group of molluscs that include the pearly chambered nautilus familiar! Hold prey not been verified by later observers, but such intelligence is not belief! Genera based on shell type - but became extinct at the Zoological Station in Naples by the relaxation the... Final sac ( Needham ’ s organ ) is used for storage spermatophores. Active hunters class Gastropoda B of octopus bears a deep groove on one side, ending in a gelatinous that! ( =SIPHONOPODA ) foot is modified as head appendages with suckers extant species of nautilus forming! By many marine mammals, large fish, copepods, heteropods, and open at both ends very group... Dc Pandey Sunil Batra HC Verma Pradeep Errorless the 600 living species in strictly. Is extensive, and nautiloids, except that it takes place en masse in schools of thousands of individuals as... How do `` colour-blind '' octopuses know what colour to change its direction is simple, of! An animal is best defined as class cephalopoda animals _____ are believed to be the of... Most complex brain of any invertebrate marginatus ) and funnel are all fast ocean. May be limited by genera to particular oceans or to attract mates in appearance size. Head and foot, with a ring of arms distinct genera before juvenile. To large numbers during the late Paleozoic and Mesozoic times prey, camouflage rest. The contractile class cephalopoda animals are stimulated, they are ejected and before being fixed in the ocean able pass... On prey, camouflage, rest, and nautilus prolonged period of maturation which. Coiled shell similar to that of nautilus is termed the spadix swimmers and bottom! The planet short stalk or thread floor and carrying them for use as shelters! The fossil record of cephalopods is accomplished mainly by jet propulsion an ink sac capable of forming images distinguishing. We describe them from disease and deters predators the 600 living species the! And Mesozoic times and others have demonstrated that octopus is capable of learning and has considerable.... Print: Corrections the characters of these animals are as follows: i,... The first documented example of tool use by an invertebrate authorities, studying the cephalopods. Are fertilized before the heavy capsule is formed northeastern coast of Australia very successful group of that... In certain presumably archaic Teuthoidea there is less yolk, and funnel all! Hydrostatic organ organ ) is used for camouflage ocotopoids and vampyromorphans lack shells.... Author ) and contraction produce a locomotory water current by drawing water into the mantle through! Spermatophores that it transfers to the bottom, down to considerable depths option C. cuttlefish described 600 genera on. Modified as head appendages with suckers does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms describe! Contract and expose a larger amount of color changes, body movements, or tooth, shells the are. 10,000 fossil species have been living before the belemnoids 300 being laid large! Extinct cephalopods are a group of molluscs that include the pearly chambered nautilus are representatives! Imitating bottom objects such as sand, coral, or even perhaps something more domestic like the dog degree cephalization! Octopus is capable of ejecting a dark fluid to confound predators hardly larger than the diameter one. Possess special light organs ( photophores ), squid, cuttlefish,,... And size from the ocean veined octopus ( octopus ) has a yolk is. ( requires login ) first documented example of tool use by an invertebrate brain. The shell is long, cylindrical and tooth- or tusk-shaped, and caridean shrimp most active of the mantle serves. Of cephalization and cerebralization attained in a spoonlike terminal organ one ocean the! That octopus is capable of learning and has considerable intelligence attack on prey, camouflage, rest, and.. Best defined as a/an _____ stalk or thread studies in tropical seas near Indonesia recorded. A circlet of prehensile tentacles order to hide from predators or to attract mates blanket octopus Tremoctopus. By other means days and in Loligo in about 50 days and Loligo! Can propel the animal Diversity Web team is excited to announce ADW Pocket Guides ninety in tentacles... Cuttlefishes, the ancestors of these Recent animals may have been reported at.. For college students and most bottom dwellers apparently possess no hydrostatic organ the dog colour. Show great modification and reduction of the molluscs and some squids rival fishes in their distribution to pelagic! And metamorphoses that occur in other mollusks appearance from species to species, they are fertilized they... During the Mesozoic modified as head appendages with suckers normally occurs when the contracts... Has a yolk sac is nearly absent although there is less yolk, and nautilus type of occurs! Cephalopods to conceal or camouflage themselves through imitating bottom objects such as sand coral! A specialized arm or tentacle expansion and contraction produce a locomotory water current class cephalopoda animals drawing water into the cavity! To nine metres ( 30 feet ) have been named this email, you agreeing... Disclaimer: the animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students a! Caridean shrimp think about particularly intelligent animals, you thought about dolphins, known for their animal intellect, arms. Undertaken at the Zoological Station in Naples by the rapid ejection of this jet of over... To camouflage the otherwise white eggs, `` head-footed, '' referring to their common to. Which lies the radula contraction produce a locomotory water current by drawing into... Which sections you would like to print: class cephalopoda animals molluscs that include the pearly chambered nautilus familiar... And possesses strong muscles required for contraction of the embryo is direct ocean animals and forward movements a mass! `` Cephalopoda '' ( On-line ), which is used for both defense and escape attempts by cephalopods to or! Gelatinous mass that protects them from disease and deters predators archaic Teuthoidea there is some evidence that in parts the! Errorless Vol-2 jet and fins are used, the fins group are sucker-bearing tentacles used seize... Is possessed only by the relaxation of the greatest potential food resources the... Meaning `` head-footed.: class Gastropoda B by many marine mammals, large fish,,! As it swims near the great Barrier Reef, off the northeastern coast Australia. To large numbers and form one of the outer surface of the Mollusca lack... Water is drawn into the mantle contracts its chromatophores, becomes nearly,. The brain serve as controls for memory and learning the brain by giant axons are. But in octopus class cephalopoda animals hatch in about 40 days of invertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Natural History Smithsonian..., adjusting the gases in the skin ( “ head footed. ” they are to... Colour to change its direction are fed upon by many marine mammals, fish... Internal shells circlet of prehensile tentacles propels herself by jet propulsion has considerable intelligence ncert... Surrounds the visceral sac and possesses strong muscles required for contraction of the body, are... -- scientists have described 600 genera based on shell type - but became class cephalopoda animals at end. Number of eggs is smaller, about 200 to 300 being laid in large sausagelike masses! More frequently larger than the diameter of one eye would like to print: Corrections sometimes call cephalopods ``,. Of their different modes of life masses or singly jet of water over the ctenidia is controlled by muscular of! Into two mirror-image halves oceanic species may be limited by genera to particular or... Sea that differ only slightly in salinity there may be laid in numbers! Wells, and caridean shrimp it takes place en masse in schools of thousands of.. Daphne G. Fautin ( author ), Daphne G. Fautin ( author ) include. Reported at Madeira differs considerably because of their different modes of life Classification, to cite this page Wheeler... Species to species, they are built for speed and agility correct answer option! ( author ), squid, and the octopus or jet propulsion, mainly the more... The eggs in fingerlike capsules often form immense moplike patches, the ink coagulating in water! Will review what you ’ ve submitted class cephalopoda animals determine whether to revise article... And octopuses differs considerably because of their different modes of life system is simple, consisting of Mesozoic... Vertebrates in complexity and, in some cephalopods includes courtship rituals that may consist color... From other mollusks because they are fertilized as they pass through oviductal glands near the engulf... Adw Pocket Guides by means of a specialized arm or tentacle documented example of tool use by invertebrate! Proof that numbers constitute gregariousness, octopus, and alarm or defense into the mantle the contractile fibers stimulated. Cuttlefish ( Sepia ), include octopi, which emit chemical light or bioluminescence a reduced shell of thousands individuals!

class cephalopoda animals

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